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Content Security Policy

In our post on Finding and Fixing Cross-site Scripting, we recommended the use of Content Security Policy (CSP) to mitigate the effects of this vulnerability. It does this by allowing you to set up an allow list of resource locations (such as scripts) for your web pages, and therefore inform the browser to block any scripts that do not come from an authorised source. The problem is, you have to set up an allow list of resource locations, or the resource will be blocked.

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Breaking Enterprise Wireless

In our previous posts we discussed how WEP is completely broken, known weaknesses with WPA, and bruteforcing WPA using AWS. This time around it’s time to look at “Enterprise” Wireless security. These are networks protected with EAP – Extensible Authentication Protocol.

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Hashcracking with AWS

In a previous post, I showed the steps to capture a WPA handshake and crack it using Hashcat. On my tiny travel laptop I achieved 416H/s, which is…slow.

AWS offers “GPU Optimized” EC2 instances:

  • g4dn.xlarge – $0.53 per hour
  • g3s.xlarge – $0.75 per hour
  • p3.16xlarge – $24.48 per hour (that’s ~$18,000 per month!)

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Wireless Security: WPA

We previously spoke about WiFi security and how utterly broken WEP is. Now it’s time to take a look at WPA and WPA2 bruteforcing. This isn’t the only weakness of these protocols – but weak keys are common.

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Wireless Security: WEP

It’s well known that the WiFi security protocol WEP is broken. It’s been broken for years. However, if we’re writing a series on wireless security we should start at the beginning. Whilst it stands for Wired Equivalent Privacy, it hardly lives up to its name.

WiFi comes under the IEEE 802.11 family. WEP was part of the original standard and was quickly superseded by WPA – WiFi Protected Access.

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Finding and Fixing DOM-XSS

We’ve previously written about Reflected and Stored Cross-site Scripting, however this time we want to tackle DOM-Based Cross-site Scripting, or DOM-XSS for short. The exploitation of DOM-XSS is frequently very similar to Reflected Cross-site scripting, were the payload is stored within the URL and exploitation occurs where a user can be tricked into clicking the link, such as through a phishing email – but we’ll break it down step by step.

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