Extracting Domain Hashes: Mimikatz

Published on 14 October 2020

We previously covered how to perform incredibly fast hashcracking with AWS. In this post we’ll take a step back, and look at one simple method to extract the hashes from a domain controller. To be clear, this is a post exploitation step and to perform these steps a domain administrator account will be needed.

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Content Security Policy

Published on 19 October 2020

In our post on Finding and Fixing Cross-site Scripting, we recommended the use of Content Security Policy (CSP) to mitigate the effects of this vulnerability. It does this by allowing you to set up an allow list of resource locations (such as scripts) for your web pages, and therefore inform the browser to block any scripts that do not come from an authorised source. The problem is, you have to set up an allow list of resource locations, or the resource will be blocked.

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Breaking Enterprise Wireless

Published on 19 October 2020

In our previous posts we discussed how WEP is completely broken, known weaknesses with WPA, and bruteforcing WPA using AWS. This time around it’s time to look at “Enterprise” Wireless security. These are networks protected with EAP – Extensible Authentication Protocol.

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Hashcracking with AWS

Published on 19 October 2020

In a previous post, I showed the steps to capture a WPA handshake and crack it using Hashcat. On my tiny travel laptop I achieved 416H/s, which is…slow.

AWS offers “GPU Optimized” EC2 instances:

  • g4dn.xlarge – $0.53 per hour
  • g3s.xlarge – $0.75 per hour
  • p3.16xlarge – $24.48 per hour (that’s ~$18,000 per month!)
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Wireless Security: WPA

Published on 19 October 2020

We previously spoke about WiFi security and how utterly broken WEP is. Now it’s time to take a look at WPA and WPA2 bruteforcing. This isn’t the only weakness of these protocols – but weak keys are common.

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Wireless Security: WEP

Published on 19 October 2020

It’s well known that the WiFi security protocol WEP is broken. It’s been broken for years. However, if we’re writing a series on wireless security we should start at the beginning. Whilst it stands for Wired Equivalent Privacy, it hardly lives up to its name.

WiFi comes under the IEEE 802.11 family. WEP was part of the original standard and was quickly superseded by WPA – WiFi Protected Access.

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Finding and Fixing DOM-XSS

Published on 19 October 2020

We’ve previously written about Reflected and Stored Cross-site Scripting, however this time we want to tackle DOM-Based Cross-site Scripting, or DOM-XSS for short. The exploitation of DOM-XSS is frequently very similar to Reflected Cross-site scripting, were the payload is stored within the URL and exploitation occurs where a user can be tricked into clicking the link, such as through a phishing email – but we’ll break it down step by step.

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Finding and Fixing Cross-site Scripting (XSS)

Published on 19 October 2020

Cross-site Scripting (XSS) is a vulnerability that occurs where an attacker could cause a scripting language to execute within another user’s view of a web application. There are three types: Reflected, Stored, and DOM-Based. Finding and exploiting DOM-Based XSS is quite different to stored or reflected, so we’ve separated it into its own article: Finding and Fixing DOM-XSS.

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SQL Injection Exploitation: Time-based

Published on 19 October 2020

In terms of crafting payloads, Time-based injection is very similar to Blind-Boolean injection. That is to say that extracting data from the database is generally done one character at a time.

Time-based exploitation uses a function which causes a temporary pause in the database response; these differ depending on the database type but some examples are:

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SQL Injection Exploitation: Blind-Boolean

Published on 19 October 2020

Exploitation

There are several methods for exploiting SQL Injection vulnerabilties depending on the context of the injection point, any potential filters and Web Application Firewalls (WAF) in place.

These methods are generally broken down into: Error-based, Blind-Boolean, Blind Time-based, Union-Based, and Out-of-Band. Here we’ll be looking at Error-based exploitation.

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